A head of state referendum was held in 1862 to name a new King. In the Greek world monarchies were rare and were often only distinguishable from a tyranny when the hereditary ruler was more benevolent and ruled in the genuine interest of his people. However, the Athenian monarchy did not last very long. Monarchy, that is, a political order characterized by a single ruler, is an understudied aspect of Greek politics and culture. Critics of democracy, such as Thucydides and Aristophanes, also pointed out that the dēmos could be too easily swayed by a good orator or popular leaders (the demagogues) and get carried away with their emotions. From about 2000 B.C.E. A monarchy was essentially a system of government based on power gained through hereditary means. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. The word monarchy comes from the Greek root words monos (which means “one”) and arkhein (which means “rule”). The political legitimacy and authority of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic), to restricted (constitutional monarchy), to fully autocratic (absolute monarchy), and can expand across the domains of the executive, legislative and judicial. Perhaps the most famous bad decision from the Athenian democracy was the death sentence given to the philosopher Socrates in 399 BCE. Vilhelm was elected unanimously by the Greek Assembly, and became His Majesty George I, King of the Hellenes. The Kingdom of Greece was ruled by the House of Wittelsbach between 1832 and 1862 and by the House of Glücksburg from 1862 to 1924, temporarily abolished during the Second Hellenic Republic, and from 1935 to 1973, when it was once more abolished and replaced by the Third Hellenic Republic. (Pericles, 431 BCE). What does the word "Democracy" mean? The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. In other Greek states then, there were also democratic assemblies, sometimes, though, with a minimum property stipulation for attendees (as in the Boiotian federation 447-386 BCE). The monarchy was eliminated in most ancient Greek city-states by 800 B.C. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. The kings were also members of the gerousia and were admitted from a young age, so that they must have had a significant advantage over the other members who couldn’t join until they were 60. Cartwright, Mark. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Not settling on a definitive answer to these questions, government in the ancient Greek world, therefore, took extraordinarily diverse forms and, across different city-states and over many centuries, political power could rest in the hands of a single individual, an elite or in every male citizen: democracy - widely regarded as the Greeks' greatest contribution to civilization. The contributors to this book provide a unified scholarly framework in which to interpret the sociological as well as the ideological side of monarchic regimes from archaic Greek tyranny to Hellenistic monarchy in Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean. head of state referendum was held in 1862, Duchess Amalia of Oldenburg, Princess of Holstein-Gottorp, Grand Duchess Olga Constantinovna of Russia, Princess Frederica of Hanover, Great Britain and Ireland, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Monarchy_of_Greece&oldid=995934728, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 17:33. Who was the main rival of ancient Greece? For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Tatoi was the private residence and 10,000-acre estate outside of Athens originally bought by King George I in the 1870s. Monarchy is a form of government in which executive power resides in a single individual, who typically rules for life. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 20 Mar 2018. He won the referendum by 230,016 against the Duke of Leuchtenberg. Syracuse in Sicily had a run of famous tyrants, for example, Dionysios from 405 BCE and his son Dionysios II, who took over in 367 BCE. Citizens probably accounted for 10-20% of the polis population, and of these it has been estimated that only 3,000 or so people actively participated in politics. Cartwright, Mark. Many civic positions were short-term and chosen by lot to ensure bribery was kept to a minimum. Its first monarch was George I, the second son of King Christian IX of Denmark. Various boards of officials also existed to make administrative decisions; members of these were usually taken from each of the ten traditional tribes. Spartan kings could, however, be put on trial and even exiled. Thus history has indeed been live evidence witnessing the transition of most oligarchies into tyrannies. The decrees of the Assembly could also be challenged by the law courts. The assembly of Athens met at least once a month, perhaps two or three times, on the Pnyx hill in a dedicated space which could accommodate 6000 citizens. Ancient Greek Government. Monarchies were quite a rare form of government in Ancient Greece and it is sometimes hard to differentiate between governments that were classified as tyrannies versus governments that were classified as monarchies. However, when modern people shout for “democracy,” what they are really demanding is direct democracy within a parliamentary framework. The Greek origins of the word highlight the fact that ancient Greece, specifically Athens, bequeathed democracy to the world. mikaelasnitzer. In 1832 Prince Otto of Bavaria of the House of Wittelsbach was styled His Majesty Otto I, King of Greece, over which he reigned for 30 years until he was deposed in 1862. One example of their legacy is the Olympic Games. "Ancient Greek Government." We have done our best to present the history of the Greek Royal Family as clearly as possible, on the new Timeline. answer choices "rule by the government" "rule by the many" "rule by the wealthy" "rule by the people" Tags: Question 7 . PLAY. Not absolute monarchs, they did, however, hold great power when they led the Spartan army in times of war. Tags: Question 6 . Surviving, though, are over 150 political speeches and 20,000 inscriptions which include 500 decrees and 10 laws. In the preceding centuries, Greek city-states were governed by a variety of entities, including kings, oligarchies, tyrants, and, as in the case of Athens, a democracy.” The oligarchy of the 400 take over the democracy in. An oligarchy is when a council of rich people inherits power from their parents. In Athens the law was devised and enforced by magistrates (archai). Therefore, it was probably the case that public positions were in reality dominated by the wealthier citizens. Other than certain fringe elements, nobody even thinks about monarchy anymore. Monarchy. Clearly, a degree of political consensus was necessary for this overlapping apparatus to function. Military commanders also held public office in some city-states. Q. Or sometimes neighbored cities would be ruled differently, by one man or a group of men. Should sovereignty (kyrion) lie in the rule of law (nomoi), the constitution (politea), officials, or the citizens? In Sparta, the most important state officials were the five ephors. Tyrants were sole rulers of a state who had taken power in an unconstitutional manner, often murdering their predecessor. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. The Monarchy of Greece was created by the London Conference of 1832 at which the First Hellenic Republic was abolished. Cite This Work Spell. Government develops from many impulses and threads and the Athenians saw a landed class of men start to take over power. During this type of political system the states were rules by king and he used to be the supreme power. Most of the Greek people wanted Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, to be the new King. An oligarchy is a system of political power controlled by a select group of individuals, sometimes small in number but it could also include large groups. The Ottoman Empire. The word democracy derives from the Greek dēmos which referred to the entire citizen body and although it is Athens which has become associated with the birth of democracy (demokratia) from around 460 BCE, other Greek states did establish a similar political system, notably, Argos, (briefly) Syracuse, Rhodes, and Erythrai. Any male citizen 18 years or over could speak (at least in theory) and vote in the assembly, usually with a simple show of hands. Ancient Greece Had Many Governments Created by. The most famous monarchies were those in the states of Macedonia and Epeiros, where the ruler shared power with an assembly, limited though these were in practice. The government systems of ancient Greece were varied as the Greeks searched for the answers to such fundamental questions as who should rule and how? However, the pattern was not uniform. This feeling was especially evidenced in the demonizing of the Persian kings Darius and Xerxes, the tyrants par excellence. 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