police use of force research paper

In addition to the direct effects of police brutality to those who experience such abuse, there are often broader sociological consequences that may result when police engage in the excessive use of force, particularly when the force is systemic in nature and occurs in communities whose residents perceive that they have been socially and legally marginalized by their municipal governments. Precincts characterized by the highest rates of racially concentrated structural disadvantage also had the highest rates of police misconduct. It seems clear that, while people subjected to direct forms of police brutality suffer the most immediate harm from such abuse, those residing in communities – even cities – in which the police engage in the excessive use of force with little accountability also experience the resulting harms. Although police departments can use recruitment as a tool to prevent the excessive use of force by their officers, the best prevention is likely based on a multilevel approach that involves local governing bodies selecting chief administrators with strong commitments to transparency and the virtues of “good” policing. According to Nielsen (2014), “excited delirium syndrome is defined as delirium coupled with extreme agitation” (p. 1). This theory states that the main aspect that has the greatest impact on the people’s perceptions about the police “is whether an individual believes they were treated justly and fairly during personal encounters with agents of authority” (Livingston et al., 2014, p. 281). The motorist – Marquette Frye – resisted being taken into custody, which led to an escalating confrontation with police (Barnhill 2010). Unlike other forms of police deviance, which tend to be wrong by their very occurrence, the roots of police brutality reside in the legitimate use of force – a tool society gives police to accomplish its mandate. 629; GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper … Tyler (1990) has argued that societies are more likely than not to comply with the law when they believe in the morality of the law and in the legitimacy of the government making the law. Such are the conditions that most often allow officers to engage in abuse of authority – including excessive force – with little fear of recourse (e.g., Kane 2002; Kubrin and Weitzer 2003). Kane attributed this relationship to the same processes driving Kurbin and Weitzer’s (2003) findings: As residents of socially/economically marginalized communities perceived increases in police abuses, they likely ceased sharing crime-related intelligence with authorities, allowing violent crimes to occur that may have been otherwise prevented. When he observes a pickup truck roll confidently through the intersection without stopping, the officer ignites his engine, activates the light bar, and pulls quickly away from the curb to initiate a vehicle stop on the truck. To provide a framework for assessing the appropriateness of the use of force, the Supreme Court applied an “objective reasonableness” standard (via the Search and Seizure Clause of the Fourth Amendment) in the case Graham v. Connor (1989), holding that the legality of the use of force must be evaluated based on the judgment of a “reasonable” officer at the scene of the event rather than through a “retrospective” lens. In short, the purpose of this study was to determine the meaning of use of force, who can use force, when force should be applied and how much force is too much force. These events tended to trigger an uncharacteristic response in the officer – perhaps due to family history or other personal experience – leading him to take on the attributes of the enforcer: He was quick to use violence as an initial response when contacting an alleged domestic or sexual assault offender. “Police officers should use only the amount of force necessary to control an incident, effective arrest, or protect themselves or others from harm or death.” (National Institute of Justice) Unfortunately, at times there are some police officers have felt that they are above this rule and have used excessive force in unnecessary situations. Although the examination of unnecessary force is largely beyond the scope of this research paper, it is important to at least identify because (1) it represents a component of the overall use of force construct, and (2) likely happens more frequently than does excessive force, often without the subsequent application of accountability remedies (Fyfe 1986). Herbert S (1997) Policing space: territoriality and the Los Angeles Police Department. The social and economic costs of the 1965 Los Angeles riot were eclipsed only by those of the 1992 Los Angeles riot, which occurred in the immediate aftermath of two white police officers being acquitted for beating motorist Rodney King. The officer exits his vehicle, walks to the truck, and instructs the driver to put down his window. Future of Policing - Research papers on the future of policing delve into the topics of policing in America and discuss the future policing will have after increasing militarization of police forces, and the use of excessive force. Muir (1977) takes a more individualistic approach, observing that some police officers have an “enforcer”-type personality borne out of their inabilities to (1) empathize with people whom they contact under the worst of circumstances, and (2) communicate in ways that may de-escalate potentially violent encounters. On non-lethal uses of force, blacks and Hispanics are more than fifty percent more likely to experience some form of force in interactions with police. Christian science monitor. Though perhaps commonly believed, police officers are not required to match a suspect’s resistance incrementally with force that follows a use of force continuum (Graham v. Connor 1989). The research would be of a quantitative analysis approach. Society and the courts do not require police officers to engage in fist fights with suspects in order to gain compliance. Some experts (e.g., Skolnick and Fyfe 1993; Toch 1996), however, who viewed the entire tape – as opposed to simply its last 7 s – saw a more nuanced escalation of force that ultimately became excessive. In the qualitative portion of their study, Kubrin and Weitzer found through unstructured interviews that the initial homicides were allowed to occur in large part because community residents refused to share information related to criminal activity with the police due to their distrust of law enforcement authorities. However, several foundational studies address the psychological and physiological components of the stress response, which are, in turn, related to use of force decisions. Widespread police brutality exists in many countries, even those that prosecute it. This report is a good summary of use of force research from several perspectives, including citizen complaints. Recall Incident #2 – the dramatized use of force scenario – in the “Excessive Force Through Legal and Social Lenses” section of this research paper. This framework is so-named for the colloquial usage of the term by police officers as a shorthand for suspects who – through speech or gesture – “deny” a police officer’s “definition” of the power structure that characterizes their interactions with the public – namely, that officers are in charge. The systematically cruel police officers make up only a small part of the police force. The main goal for an officer is to keep criminals off the streets and to try and maintain a safe environment for people to live. Herbert’s normative order system, which he referred to a police subculture, may be integrate with occupational templates because it explains how situational circumstances may trigger police responses designed to satisfy occupational goals. Other studies show that CEWs are widely used by police officers during law-enforcement activities. Participants came into contact with the police under various circumstances, including physical conflicts. 78–79) argued that because the State “claims the monopoly on the legitimate use of force” to enforce its laws, politicians who hope to gain the “obedience” of those whom they govern need not simply do the right thing; politicians must appear to do the right thing. Civil disorders various incidents involving the use of force involving mentally ill specifically you. 2015, 53 ) of how to prevent and control the excessive use of force by over! Parked in a somewhat concealed position relative to the CEWs, ABC-CLIO, Carter D ( )! 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